16 - 01 WHAT IS TWO-DIMENSIONAL AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL COMPOSITION?
The visual artist deals with space, two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional.
Two-dimensional space composition lies between flat and decorative usage
of space to the creation of illusion of space or illusion of three-dimensionality.
Whereas in contrast three-dimensional orientation deals with placement
of objects in space or actual division of space.
- 02 IMPORTANCE OF FIGURE GROUND
We cannot perceive objects on a homogeneous field. A need for a heterogeneous
field in a figure is essential. Figure ground refers to our ability
to distinguish an object from its general surroundings. The characteristics
of figure ground relationship are as under:
- The ground is usually larger and simpler than the figure. The smaller
an area, the greater the probability it will be seen as the figure
- The figure usually appears to be on top or in front of the ground
even though the figure and the ground are in the same physical plane
- Convex shapes tend to become figure and concave shapes tend to become
- Unbroken shapes tend to become figure and segmented shapes tend
to become ground
- What dominates the eye is considered the figure
- More passively displayed objects take on the role of ground
- Darker colours tend to form figure
- The enclosed surface tends to become figure, whereas the enclosing
one tends to become ground
- Figure and ground of same or nearly the same area tend to become
- Alternating shapes tend to create figure ground ambiguity
- Strong figure ground relationships create visual excitement and
attracts the attention of the viewer
- Generally an ambiguous figure ground relationship is not beneficial
- 03 FIGURE-GROUND REVERSAL (POSITIVE-NEGATIVE EXPANSION)
Normally, the smaller area tends to be the figure; and when the two
areas, figure and ground begin to approach equal size and a state of
balance, the overall effect becomes perceptually unstable. The focus
of the eye will alternate between figure perceived as ground and ground
perceived as figure.
figure-ground compositions can be considered as positive-negative reversals.
A strong figurehead composition is visually more exciting and attractive
than an ambiguous one.
aspects of figure and ground are as important as the spatial intervals
in a point-line composition or the voids in a three-dimensional creation.
A successful positive-negative spatial relationship must make maximum
use of the total work area. Of course, that does not mean that a checkerboard
is an aesthetic success because it cannot sustain the viewer's interest
for a long time. So a good composition is one which uses space well,
and is also visually interesting - which means that positive and negative
areas must be well balanced.