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01. Relationship of dot, line and plane
02. Dot
03. Constellations
04. Line
05. Grids & Patterns
06. Shapes
07. Openings (shapes within shapes)
08. Colour
09. The colour wheel & natural order of colours
10. Color Harmony
11. Texture
12. Light & Shade, Shadows
13. Three-dimensional form
14. Voids
15. Space
16. Composition
17. Principles of basic design
18. Proportion and Scale


15. Space

In a sense, even the most complex form can be seen as a juxtaposition of planes, shapes and the space around or within.

The concept of space, as put forth by Jacob Van Uexkiill, goes thus: 'Like the spider with its web, so every subject weaves relationships between itself and particular properties of objects; the many strands are then woven together and finally form the basis of the subject's very existence.'

Most of man's actions comprise a spatial aspect, whereby he relates to the objects of orientation such as inside and outside, far away and close by, separate and united, continuous and discontinuous, above and below, before and behind, right and left. These terms have direct reference to man himself and his position in the world.

The most intangible of all aesthetic elements, space is also the most important one. Whether a small two-dimensional composition or a large three-dimensional structure, the spatial aspect must be studied thoroughly and used sensitively.

Human beings, like all objects, exist in a form-space relationship. Form cannot exist without space, and space is an aid to the perception and appreciation of form. However, by and large, people fail to visualize and comprehend three-dimensional forms, and find it simpler to analyse two-dimensional images to three-dimensional forms, or vice versa.

The space-form composites in any three-dimensional creation can be analysed and described, using the following parameters:



01. Size
02. Colour
03. Visual contour, form
04. Texture, tactile quality
05. Olfactory quality, smell
06. Weight, mass, volume
07. Auditory quality, sound
08. Gustatory quality, taste
09. Material, natural or synthetic
10. Natural or manufactured
11. Animal, plant or mineral
12. Family of object
13. Value, light to dark
14. Value, monetary
15. Function
16. Structure

17. Components
18. Connotations
19. Durability
20. Strength
21. Density
22. Origin
23. Sex, male, female or neuter
24. Environment
25. Thermal quality
26. Living or dead
27. Animate or inanimate
28. Emotional effect
29. Integrated or articulated
30. Mobile or stationary
31. Dimensional quality
32. Solid, liquid or gas
33. Visual analysis (linear, planar, solid or combinations)


In visual analysis, forms are classified as linear, planar, solid or combinations of these. Relying heavily on the visual and tactile senses, an artist conceptualises a form, selects the material for its construction and evaluates its three-dimensionality. Only after gaining some hands on experience in the analysis and evaluation of form-space relationships, a person can be equipped to make an aesthetic decision regarding a three- dimensional object.

The planning and manipulation of space are the most important aspects of architectural design. In the art of building, the space within the built form becomes finite, whereas that around it is infinity. While the finite space is utilized for human existence, it is the infinite, cosmic space that is truly inspiring. "Buildings with attributes of visual drama and a perceived notion of its cosmic connection, respond to our inner space, and assume eternal values. A place of worship is perhaps the supreme architectural effort, in which eternal space and time are embodied in a material envelope. Similarly, oceans and mountains embody eternity in a manner, which transcends temporal limitations," says leading Indian architect Sen Kapadia, in his essay 'Space - essential ingredient of design'.



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For more details contact - Ar. Shirish Sukhatme
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