- 01 ARTIST GUILD:
In the medieval period, students of various ages would enter an artists
shop as an apprentice. In two to six years he would have learnt his
craft. After serving his apprenticeship he would go out as a journey
man, and after several years he would become a master. Such programmes
still exist in various parts of world especially in craft areas.
- 02 THE ACADEMIES:
In addition to the Guilds, in the middle of the 16th century, a different
form of art education, the academy, surfaced. From the 18th-century
these academies have firmly established their base. An academy known
as Ecole des beaux arts, which was founded in 17th-century still exists
today. The method of instruction in academies essentially was lecture,
drawing and more drawing. This programme led to the formation of a definite
set of rules for art students. These rules, too numerous to mention,
fell into the following categories,
Generally students were kept under the steady supervision and influence
of one master instructor instead of studying under many instructors,
as it is happening today. The goal of the student was to imitate the
master; those who imitated most accurately were considered as exceptional
- 03 THE BAUHAUS APPROACH:
The Bauhaus, the German School of thought, has basically intellectualised
visual education and developed a programme that permits students to
combine creative invention with aesthetics & technology. Students
here were not required or even encouraged to produce premature practical
results, instead they were offered the opportunity to experiment freely
with various ideas (concepts, materials and tools within structured
problems. In theory, the attitude, knowledge and skills acquired in
the course would be carried over into an applied visual arts activity.
The Bauhaus School is important because it has influenced foundation
programmes of visual studies in most countries. And due to this the
art schools have accepted the fact that exposure to the basics is desirable
for their students during the first year.
- 04 ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLE OF APPROACH:
Based on the Bauhaus method which was known in America in 1920s, some
art educationists recognised a relationship between Bauhaus thinking
and their own. Thereafter independent work has been done to upgrade
basic art instruction throughout the nation. Visual art educators realised
that a basic structure was essential for teaching visual arts. The basic
matrix was developed showing the interrelationship of elements in principles
of design and many foundation courses today are still being taught by
this method. Elements and principles of approach are primarily two-dimensional
orientations. Each element and principle is isolated. The student experiences
each and in turn periodically combines them to create beauty or, aesthetically
- 05 NATURE APPROACH:
Two-dimensional Principle Approach is the Nature Approach. In
this approach to foundation studies, the instructor makes references
to the elements in principles as they are found in nature. Each assignment
is solved with nature as the source, nature as the ultimate designer.
If the use of colour is being studied, the student is told to refer
to an insect wing or stone or flower.
- 06 UNSTRUCTURED APPROACH:
The "Anything Goes Attitude" in the art world had made its
way through this approach. Such programmes which lack a systematic syllabus
and continuity, which are totally based on an Instructor or which Change
from One Instructor to another Instructor have made little progress
in refining the discipline.
- 07 CONTEMPORARY APPROACH:
Recently, there has been a trend among students to return to the basics.
Students have been demanding concrete information on the basics of visual
studies. The instructor needs to be sensitive about theorising and and
Defining the Goals of Visual Studies.